The tongue is a muscle organ associated with the function of swallowing, taste and speech. It acts as an easily accessible organ to assess the health of an individual and shows the state of hydration of the body. It is said that the tongue is the mirror of the gastrointestinal tract and that abnormal functioning of the stomach and intestines affects the tongue.
Some characteristic changes occur in the language with some diseases. This is why the language test is very essential and will give some indications for the diagnosis. All doctors examine the tongue and take into account changes in size, shape, color and moisture. , coating, nature of taste buds and movements etc.
Appearance of the tongue in certain abnormal circumstances: -
1) Language movements: -a) In the case of unilateral paralysis of the body (hemiplegia), the tongue moves towards the gearyarylated side when it protrudes.
b) There is tremor of the tongue in diseases such as thyrotoxicosis, delirium tremens and parkinsonisum. There is also tremor in nervous patients.
c) With progressive bulbar paralysis there will be a decrease and paralysis of the tongue with fibrillation. Eventually the tongue will shrink and remain on the mouth without function. This condition is associated with a flow of saliva and a loss of speech.
d) In chorea (involuntary rhythmic movements) it is possible that the patient cannot stick out the tongue at rest, it will move involuntarily.
2) Humidity of the tongue: -The fluid of the tongue gives clues about the hydration state of the body. Exhaustion of water volume causes peripheral circulatory insufficiency characterized by weakness, thirst, agitation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dry and dry tongue.
Dry tongue is observed under the following conditions.
(b) Later stages of serious illness
c) advanced uremia
d) hypovolumetric shock
e) Heat exhaustion
g) acute bowel obstruction
i) prolonged fasting.
3) Language color change: -a) Central cyanosis: -
Cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the mucosa due to the decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood. This is observed in cases of heart failure, respiratory failure and anoxia. The lips turn light blue in the cyanotic tongue.
b) jaundice: -
It is a yellowish discoloration of all mucous membranes of the body (including the tongue) due to an increase in bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is observed in cases of hepatitis, bile duct obstruction, further destruction of ...
c) Advanced uremia: -
This is the increase in urea and other nitrogen waste in the blood due to renal failure. The language is turning brown.
d) Keto acidosis: -
It is an acidosis with accumulation of ketone bodies, primarily observed in diabetes mellitus. There the tongue turns brown with a typical ketone odor that comes out of the mouth.
e) Riboflavin deficiency: -
The deficiency of this vitamin (vitamin B2) produces a color of the tongue with pain and tears in the lips.
f) Niacin deficiency: -
Niacin deficiency (vitamin B3) and some other B vitamins result in a clear, deep red or strong red tongue.
g) anemia: -
It is the decrease in the percentage of hemoglobin in the blood. In the case of severe anemia, the tongue becomes pale.
4) Coating on the tongue: -a) bad breath: -
Initially, what's responsible for bad breath is the formation of a paste-like layer (biofilm) on the tongue, which houses thousands of anaerobic bacteria and produces harmful gases. People who complain about bad breath may have a thick lining on the back of the tongue. .
(b) typhoid: -
With typhus the tongue turns white like a fur.
c) candidiasis; -
It is a fungal infection that somewath affects the mucous membranes of the body. White lesions fall on the tongue.
d) In the case of diabetes and hypoadrenalism, white lesions will be broken down.
e) Secondary syphilis: -
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by an infection with Trepenoma pallidum. In the secondary phase of this disease you will see mucous membranes that are smooth, smooth, white, smooth plaques that cannot be easily removed.
f) Leokoplakia: -
White keratotic spots on the tongue and oral cavity are observed here. This is a precancerous condition.
g) AIDS: -
These patients have hairy leukoplakia.
h) Peritonitis: -
It is the inflammation of the peritoneum (internal envelope of the abdominal cavity).